CLIENTS PARTICIPANTS
Metabolic Health Metabolic Health

At INQUIS Clinical Research, we have an established history of excellence in acute and longer term clinical intervention trials studying various markers of metabolism. We have designed and conducted many trials on glucose and insulin responses, as well as examined gut hormones and markers of vascular function, including antioxidants. We have conducted studies to examine mechanisms in protein and fat metabolism and these have been used to demonstrate bioavailability and bioequivalency. With our extensive participant database, we can successfully recruit the target population unique to your research needs.

Metabolic Health
Areas of Expertise
Glycemic Index & Glycemic Load

At INQUIS GI, our scientists have been determining the Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load of foods since 1995, and have determined the Glycemic Index of hundreds of food products over this time  Our senior scientists were part of the research group that introduced the concept of the Glycemic Index to the scientific community in 1981 and have continued to contribute to its research ever since.

When you determine the Glycemic Index or Glycemic Load of your products at INQUIS GI, you test with confidence that your research is carefully conducted by experienced and globally-renowned experts in our ISO-certified clinical research laboratory.

Contact us to learn how we can help you achieve your clinical research objectives.

Publications

Jenkins DJA, Wolever TMS, Taylor RH, Barker HM, Fielden H, Baldwin JM, Bowling AC, Newman HC, Jenkins AL, Goff DV. Glycemic index of foods: a physiological basis for carbohydrate exchange. Am J Clin Nutr 1981;34:362-66.
The first paper ever published on the glycemic index!

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Wolever TMS, Gibbs AL, Spolar M, Hitchner EV, Heimowitz C. Equivalent glycemic load (EGL): a method for quantifying the glycemic responses elicited by low carbohydrate foods. Nutr Metab (Lond) 2006;3:33.

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Zurbau A, Jenkins AL, Jovanovski E, Au-Yeung F, Bateman EA, Brissette C, Wolever TMS, Hanna A, Vuksan V. Acute effect of equicaloric meals varying in glycemic index and glycemic load on arterial stiffness and glycemia in healthy adults: a randomized crossover trial. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2018;73(1):79-85. doi:10.1038/s41430-018-0182-2

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Aldughpassi A, Wolever TMS. Effect of coffee/tea on the glycaemic index of foods: no effect on mean but reduced variability. Brit J Nutr 2009;101:1282-85.

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Kinnear T, Wolever TMS, Murphy AM, Sullivan JA, Liu Q, Bizimungu B. Effect of preparation method on the glycaemic index of novel potato clones. Food Funct 2011;2:438-44.

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Wolever TMS, Mehling C, Chiasson JL, Josse RG, Leiter LA, Maheux P, Rabasa-Lhoret R, Rodger NW, Ryan EA. Low glycaemic index diet and disposition index in type 2 diabetes (the Canadian trial of Carbohydrates in Diabetes): a randomized controlled trial. Diabetologia 2008;51:1607-15.

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Wolever TMS, Giddens JL, Sievenpiper JL. Effect of ethnicity on glycaemic index: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutr Diab 2015;5:e170; doi:10.1038/nutd.2015.21.

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Liese AD, Schulz M, Fang F, Wolever TM, D’Agostino RB Jr, Sparks KC, Mayer-Davis EJ. Dietary glycemic index and glycemic load, carbohydrate and fiber Intake, and measures of insulin sensitivity, secretion, and adiposity in the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study. Diabetes Care 2005;28:2832-38.

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Postprandial glucose and insulin responses

INQUIS Clinical Research has extensive experience in conducting research trials that examine attenuation of glucose responses. With both short-term measures of glucose response and long-term measures of glucose tolerance, we can conduct the trial that is best suited to your goals.

Measuring postprandial insulin levels is an important component of clinical trials, to ensure that insulin levels are not disproportionately increased in relation to glucose response. With acute studies measuring postprandial insulin response as well as long-term studies of insulin sensitivity, we are able to address your research needs.

Contact us to learn how we can help you achieve your clinical research objectives.

Publications

Wolever TMS, Jenkins AL, Yang J, Nisbet M, Johnson J, Chu YF, Pan Y. An optimized, slowly digested savory cluster reduced postprandial glucose and insulin responses in healthy human subjects1. Curr Dev Nutr 2019;nzz006.

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Wolever TMS, Jones PJH, Jenkins AL, Mollard RC, Wang H, Johnston A, Johnson J, Chu YF. Glycaemic and insulinaemic impact of oats soaked overnight in milk vs. cream of rice with and without sugar, nuts, and seeds: a randomized, controlled trial. Eur J Clin Nutr 2019;73(1):86-93.

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Wolever T, Jenkins A, Prudence K, Johnson J, Duss R, Chu Y, Steinert RE. Effect of adding oat bran to instant oatmeal on glycaemic response in humans – a study to establish the minimum effective dose of oat β-glucan. Food Funct 2018;9(3):1692-1700. doi:10.1039/c7fo01768e

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Augustin LSA, Chiavaroli L, Campbell J, Ezatagha A, Jenkins AL, Esfahani A, Kendall CW. Post-prandial glucose and insulin responses of hummus alone or combined with a carbohydrate food: a dose–response study. Nutr J 2015;15(1). doi:10.1186/s12937-016-0129-1.

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Campbell JE, Glowczewski T, Wolever TMS. Controlling subjects’ prior diet and activities does not reduce within-subject variation of postprandial glycemic responses to foods. Nutr Res 2003;23:621-29.

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Wolever TMS, Jenkins AL, Campbell J, Ezatagha A, Pan Y, Nisbet M, Harkness L. Effect of an optimized savory cluster on glycemic and insulinemic responses in healthy individuals: a randomized, cross-over study. FASEB J. 2016;30(1_supplement):lb389-lb389.

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Wolever TMS, Mehling C. High-carbohydrate/low-glycaemic index dietary advice improves glucose disposition index in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. Brit J Nutr 2002;87:477-87.

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Wolever TMS, Mehling C. Long-term effect of varying source or amount of dietary carbohydrate on postprandial plasma glucose, insulin, triacylglycerol and free fatty acid concentrations in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. Am J Clin Nutr 2003;77:612-21.

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Chiasson JL, Josse RG, Leiter LA, Mihic M, Nathan DM, Palmason C, Cohen RM, Wolever TMS. The effect of acarbose on insulin sensitivity in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. Diabetes Care 1996;19:1190-93.

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Antioxidants

Antioxidants play an important role in the progression of disease and a variety of chronic health conditions. At INQUIS Clinical Research, we measure antioxidant capacity as well as long term oxidative stress, as required to address your research needs.

Contact us to learn how we can help you achieve your clinical research objectives.

Publications

Seider M, Grant S, Barre E, Kitts D, Wolever TMS, O’Connor D, Darling P, Josse R, Thorpe K, Feig D, Lowe J, Luthra M, Zawawi H, Thompson A, Ramdath DD. Low glycaemic index diet for reduction of oxidative stress in women with gestational diabetes. Can J Diet Pract Res 2018;79(3).

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Ghorbani P, Santhakumar P, Hu Q, Djiadeu P, Wolever TMS, Palaniyar N, Grasemann H. Short-chain fatty acids affect cystic fibrosis airway inflammation and bacterial growth. Eur Respir J. 2015;46(4):1033-45. doi: 10.1183/09031936.00143614.

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Jovanovski E, Peeva V, Sievenpiper JL, Jenkins AL, Desouza L, Rahelic D, Sung MK, Vuksan V. Modulation of endothelial function by Korean red ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) and its components in healthy individuals: a randomized controlled trial. Cardiovasc Ther 2014;32(4):163-9. doi: 10.1111/1755-5922.12077.

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Wang DD, Sievenpiper JL, de Souza RJ, Chiavaroli L, Ha V, Cozma AI, Mirrahimi A, Yu ME, Carleton AJ, Di Buono M, Jenkins AL, Leiter LA, Wolever TMS, Beyene J, Kendall CW, Jenkins DJ. The effects of fructose intake on serum uric acid vary among controlled dietary trials. J Nutr 2012;142(5):916-23. doi: 10.3945/jn.111.151951.

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Gut hormones

Gut hormones are important indicators of satiety and may reveal the mechanism of action of your product. At INQUIS Clinical Research, we measure GLP-1, GIP, PYY, ghrelin, and adiponectin in order to achieve our clients’ research objectives when determining the effect of their products on feelings of fullness.

Contact us to learn how we can help you achieve your clinical research objectives.

Publications

Rahat-Rozenbloom S, Fernandes J, Cheng J, Wolever TMS. Acute increases in serum colonic short-chain fatty acids elicited by inulin do not increase GLP-1 or PYY responses but may reduce ghrelin in lean and overweight humans. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2016;71(8):953-958.

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Kendall CW, West SG, Augustin LS, Esfahani A, Vidgen E, Bashyam B, Sauder KA, Campbell J, Chiavaroli L, Jenkins AL, Jenkins DJ. Acute effects of pistachio consumption on glucose and insulin, satiety hormones and endothelial function in the metabolic syndrome. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2014;68(3):370-5.

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Tarini J, Wolever T. The fermentable fibre inulin increases postprandial serum short-chain fatty acids and reduces free-fatty acids and ghrelin in healthy subjects. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2010;35(1):9-16. doi:10.1139/h09-119

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Vuksan V, Jenkins AL, Dias AG, Lee AS, Jovanovski E, Rogovik AL, Hanna A. Reduction in postprandial glucose excursion and prolongation of satiety: possible explanation of the long-term effects of whole grain Salba. Eur J Clin Nutr 2010;64(4): 436-8.

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Vascular function

At INQUIS Clinical Research, we offer a comprehensive panel of vascular health measurements. Our trials provide clinically validated, non-invasive, highly sensitive measurements of changes in the circulatory system and access to important cardiovascular information in order to determine the effect of foods on vascular health.

Contact us to learn how we can help you achieve your clinical research objectives.

Publications

Zurbau A, Jenkins AL, Jovanovski E, Au-Yeung F, Bateman EA, Brissette C, Wolever TMS, Hanna A, Vuksan V. Acute effect of equicaloric meals varying in glycemic index and glycemic load on arterial stiffness and glycemia in healthy adults: a randomized crossover trial. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2018;73(1):79-85. doi:10.1038/s41430-018-0182-2

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Jovanovski E, Jenkins A, Dias AG, Peeva V, Sievenpiper J, Arnason JT, Rahelic D, Josse RG, Vuksan V. Effects of Korean red ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Mayer) and its isolated ginsenosides and polysaccharides on arterial stiffness in healthy individuals. Am J Hypertens 2010;23(5):469-72. doi: 10.1038/ajh.2010.5.

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Jovanovski E, Peeva V, Sievenpiper JL, Jenkins AL, Desouza L, Rahelic D, Sung MK, Vuksan V. Modulation of endothelial function by Korean red ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) and its components in healthy individuals: a randomized controlled trial. Cardiovasc Ther 2014;32(4):163-9. doi: 10.1111/1755-5922.12077.

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Jovanovski E, Bateman EA, Bhardwaj J, Fairgrieve C, Mucalo I, Jenkins AL, Vuksan V. Effect of Rg3-enriched Korean red ginseng (Panax ginseng) on arterial stiffness and blood pressure in healthy individuals: a randomized controlled trial. J Am Soc Hypertens. 2014 Aug;8(8):537-41. doi: 10.1016/j.jash.2014.04.004. Epub 2014 Apr.

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Bioavailability & Bioequivalency

There are various methods for determining bioavailability and bioequivalency, depending on a product’s intended use.  At INQUIS Clinical Research, our research team is well-equipped to address the pharmacokinetics involved with determining absorption.  We are also experienced in examining physiological effects that can be used to demonstrate equivalency.

Contact us to learn how we can help you achieve your clinical research objectives.

Publications

Kinnear T, Wolever TMS, Murphy AM, Sullivan JA, Liu Q, Bizimungu B. Kinnear T, Wolever TMS, Murphy AM, Sullivan JA, Liu Q, Bizimungu B. Kinnear T, Wolever TMS, Murphy AM, Sullivan JA, Liu Q, Bizimungu B. Effect of preparation method on the glycaemic index of novel potato clones. Food Funct 2011;2:438-44.Food Funct 2011;2:438-44.Food Funct 2011;2:438-44.

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Grysman A, Wolever TMS, Carlson T. Effects of sucromalt on postprandial responses in humans. Eur J Clin Nutr 2008;62:1364-71.

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Wolever TMS, Robb PA. Effect of guar, pectin, psyllium, soy polysaccharide and cellulose on breath hydrogen and methane in healthy subjects. Am J Gastroenterol 1992;87:305-10.

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Robb PA, Wolever TMS, Hassanein J. Use of breath hydrogen to quantify carbohydrate malabsorption: lack of effect of soluble fibre (guar). Nutr Res 1991;11:1349-56.

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Jenkins DJA, Thorne MJ, Wolever TMS, Jenkins AL, Rao AV, Thompson LU. The effect of starch-protein interaction in wheat on the glycemic response and rate of in vitro digestion. Am J Clin Nutr 1987;45:946-51.

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Wolever TMS, Cohen Z, Thompson LU, Thorne MJ, Jenkins MJA, Prokipchuk EJ, Jenkins DJA. Ileal loss of available carbohydrate in man: comparison of a breath hydrogen method with direct measurement using a human ileostomy model. Am J Gastroenterol 1986;81: 115-22.

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Braunstein CR, Noronha JC, Glenn AJ, Viguiliouk E, Noseworthy R, Khan TA, Yeung FA, Blanco Mejia S, Wolever TMS, Josse RG, Kendall CWC, Sievenpiper JL. A double-blind, randomized controlled, acute feeding equivalence trial of small, catalytic doses of fructose and allulose on postprandial blood glucose metabolism in healthy participants: The Fructose and Allulose Catalytic Effects (FACE) trial. Nutrients 2018;10:750. doi:10.3390/nu10060750.

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Noronha J, Braunstein C, Glenn AJ, Khan TA Viguiliouk E, Noseworthy R, Blanco Mejia S, Kendall CWC, Wolever TMS, Leiter LA, Sievenpiper J. The effect of small doses of fructose and allulose on postprandial glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetes: a double-blind, randomized, controlled acute feeing, equivalence trial. Diabetes Obes Metab 2018;20:2361-70.

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Protein and fat metabolism

As sources of protein remain a highly relevant area of research for today’s consumer, INQUIS Clinical Research is pleased to provide services to aid our clients in the product development of foods containing fats and proteins. We have experience in studies comparing protein quality, plant vs. animal proteins, and equivalency studies. Our trials detect levels of protein in the blood to establish and determine absorption, in addition to examining fatty acid profiles to better characterize mechanisms of action.

Contact us to learn how we can help you achieve your clinical research objectives.

Publications

Wolever TMS, van Klinken BJW, Bordenave N, Kaczmarczyk M, Jenkins AL, Chu YF, Harkness L. Reformulating cereal bars: high resistant starch reduces in vitro digestibility but not in vivo glucose or insulin response; whey protein reduces glucose but disproportionately increases insulin. Am J Clin Nutr 2016;104:(4)

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Padhi EMT, Blewett HJ, Duncan AM, Guzman RP, Hawke A, Seetharaman K, Tsao R, Wolever TMS, Ramdath DD. Whole soy flour incorporated into a muffin and consumed at 2 doses of soy protein does not lower LDL cholesterol in a randomized, double-blind controlled trial of hypercholesterolemic adults. J Nutr 2015;145(12):2665-74. doi: 10.3945/jn.115.219873.

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Jenkins AL, Morgan L, Bishop J, Vuksan V. Randomized clinical trial in healthy individuals on the effect of viscous fiber blend on glucose tolerance when incorporated in capsules or into the carbohydrate or fat component of the meal. J Am Coll Nutr 2014;33(5):400-5. doi: 10.1080/07315724.2014.905762.

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Lan-Pidhainy X, Wolever TMS. The hypoglycemic effect of fat and protein is not attenuated by insulin resistance. Am J Clin Nutr 2010;91:98-105.

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Moghaddam E, Vogt JA, Wolever TMS. The effects of fat and protein on glycemic responses in non-diabetic humans vary with waist-circumference, fasting plasma insulin and dietary fiber intake. J Nutr 2006;136:2506-11.

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Services

INQUIS Clinical Research offers a complete suite of services to help you structure your trial from end to end.  We ensure you receive a custom-designed program that covers every aspect of your research needs seamlessly from beginning to end. We can partner as intensively as needed for clients who require our expertise with only some aspects of their clinical trial.

Features of our clinical trial services include:

Expertise
Expertise
Protocol Development
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Ethics Submission
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Recruitment
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Expertise
Trial Execution
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Clinical Trial Management
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Biological Sample Analysis
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Expertise
Biostatistics Calculation
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Publication
Expertise
Expertise
SR&ED Preparation
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